1&2 Bashraf Murabba' al Bayati بشرفمربعالبياتي 3&4 Dawr Min Yawm دورمنيومعرفتالحب 5&6 Dawr Gaddidi Ya Nafs Hazzik دور جددي يا نفس حظك 7&8 Muwashshah Hagarni Habibi موشحهجرنيحبيبي 9&10 Tahmila Saba تحميلهصبا 11&12 Mawwaal Ya Badr Timm El Gimil مواليابدرتمالجميل 13&14 Muwashshah Ya Hilalan موشحياهلالاً 15 Saut Ma Naha Warqu صوتماناحورْق 16 Saut Ma Naha Warqu - alternative composition صوتماناحورْقبلحنمختلف
Note: In songs of this period, particularly in muwashshahs, terms like Ya leil, Ya ‘ein, ya salam, aman, umrim, gaanim (Turkish canım), were used a lot. These are terms of exclamation or emotion to punctuate the lyrics and/or carry the melody.
1&2 Bashraf Murabba' Al Bayati (بشرفمربعالبياتي) A popular 19th century instrumental piece (origins unknown) composed in the Peshrev tradition. Set in Bayati Mode and to 13/4 Morraba' beat usually associated with muwashahat but here unusually set to this piece.
3&4 Dawr Min Yawm (دورمنيومعرفتالحب ) Composed by Mohammed Osman (1855-1900) this mode Bayati devr is an example of early Egyptian urban music Renaissance of the 1870s and early 1880s. A form of song more complex in structure than popular songs in the early 1800s.
Min yom ‘ereft el ḥob albi inkawa wallah inkawa Since I knew love, my heart burned Ya ḥilw gud bil urb wishfi elfu’ad marra O lovely one, bestow your closeness and cure my heart, if only once Yalli kawaak el ḥob isbur ‘ala wa’dak O you burnt by love, be patient with your plight Filbo’d walla el urb ulluh ana ‘abdak Tell them (the beloved): ‘In distance and closeness, I am your slave’
5&6 Dawr Gaddidi Ya Nafs Hazzik (دورجددييانفسحظك) Composer Unknown. This Muhayyer mode dawr is an example of pre-Egyptian music Renaissance. A form of song popular in the early to mid 1800s. It's catchy yet simple melody allows for vast space to improvise.
Gaddidi ya nafs ḥazzik, munyati ilhagir ta’ataff... O Self, renew your fortunes! S/he who I desire has shown sympathy... Wa bashir iluns waafa... ...the harbinger of good times has kept their vow... W ḥabib il alb sharraf. And the heart’s beloved has, with their presence, graced us. Ah ya salam min reish ‘inak waya ilḥawagib ya salam Ya salam, the lashes of your eyes, with your brows, ya salam Bil ‘azab iḥna ridina, dalbi’aad makansh waagib I accepted the torment, the distance was needless
7&8 Muwashshah Hagarni Habibi (موشحهجرنيحبيبي) Like all muwashahat pre 1850s, Writer and composer unknown and very little is known about the origins of this mowashahat. It is in Hijaz Mode and set to a popular and typically expansive muwashshah rhythm called 'Mohajjar' in 14/4.
Hagarni ḥabibi wala zanb li S/he left me, and I had committed no sin Nadit ya tabibi, billahi riq li I called (to the beloved): ‘O my healer, for the sake of God, soften’ Ghazali hagar w 3anni nafar My gazelle has departed and spurned me W khaleet le ‘eini alboka w alsahar You left my eyes to tears and sleeplessness
9&10 Tahmila Saba (تحميلهصبا) Tahmila is a playful instrumental form, popular in perhaps less affluent surroundings, cafes rather than palaces. A very popular form based around a collective playing of a basic melody with interludes of individual instrumental improvisations by various members of the ensemble.
11&12 Mawwaal Ya Badr Timm El Gimeel (مواليابدرتمالجميل) The mawwal is a form popular until this very day. It is based on minimal instrumental accompaniment and no rhythmic accompaniment at all. It is an opportunity for the lead vocalist to illustrate his singing skills and improvisational prowess. The recorded example is set to Jeharkah mode. This mawwal’s lyrics’ beauty lies in the use of wordplay. Badry in each different sentence and grammatical formation, means my moon, early or I did not realise. The full moon is often used either as a metaphor for the beauty of the beloved's face or acting as a witness to the sleeplessness of the poet in love.
Ya badr timm elgimil wetlaa’lina badri O full moon*, gift us this favour and appear early Yikfa malaamiḥ gamalak min gamal badri Your beauty’s virtues are like those of the Moon Amsit ya badr la ba’lam wala badri Dusk fell and I did not know or realise** Inkan ḥabibi yewafini la tib wafraḥ If my love would be loyal, I would heal and be joyous W einn ma wafani la baadir bildumu’ badri And if they would not, I would give my tears readily
*the beloved **such was the mind absent
13&14 Muwashshah Ya Hilalan (موشحياهلالاً) Like all Mowashahat pre 1850s, Writer and composer unknown and very little is known about the origins of this mowashah. It is in Neruz Mode (a derivative of Rast) and set to a popular and playful Muwashshah rhythm called "Nawakht" in 7/4. Again the moon is referenced but as a crescent representing the beloved.
Ya Hilalan ghaaba ‘anni waḥtagab O Crescent- s/he disappeared from me and was shrouded Wa hagarni la bizanbin wala sabab S/he deserted me, with no fault or reason Bilhawa ma naabani ghayr ilta3ab In love I gained nothing but weariness Wanqada elumr minni Life dissipated from me wala nilt elarab yet I did not reach what I wish for
15 Saut Ma Naha Warqu (صوتماناحورْق) A song form very popular in the Arabian Gulf region where classical poetry is put to improvisational melody over very distinctive rhythms synonymous with the region. In this recording the performer elects a melancholy poem, puts it to Rast Mode and set to Saut Shami Rhythm (a form of 4/4). More on this saut to come...
Ma naa7a wargin wagharrad belghusun illa ‘aleeh elmadaami’ hallati With every cry and coo of the dove in the branches, my tears flowed
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