1&2 Bashraf Morabba' El Bayati بشرفمربعالبياتي 3&4 Devr Min Youm دورمنيومعرفتالحب 5&6 Devr Gaddidi Ya Nafs Hazzek دور جددي يا نفس حظك 7&8 Mowashah Hagarni Habibi موشحهجرنيحبيبي 9&10 Tahmila Saba تحميلهصبا 11&12 Mowaal Ya Badr timm El Gimeel مواليابدرتمالجميل 13&14 Mowashah Ya Hilalan موشحياهلالاً 15 Saut Ma Naha Warqu صوتماناحورْق 16 Saut Ma Naha Warqu - alternative melody صوتماناحورْقبلحنمختلف
Note: In songs of this period, particularly in muwashshahs, terms like Ya leil, Ya ‘ein, ya salam, aman, omrim, gaanim (Turkish canım), were used a lot. These are terms of exclamation or emotion to punctuate the lyrics and/or carry the melody.
1&2 Bashraf Morabba' El Bayati (بشرفمربعالبياتي) A popular 19th century instrumental piece (origins unknown) composed in the Peshrev tradition. Set in Bayati Mode and to 13/4 Morraba' beat usually associated with mowashahat but here unusually set to this piece.
3&4 Devr Min Youm (دورمنيومعرفتالحب ) Composed by Mohammed Osman (1855-1900) this mode Bayati devr is an example of early Egyptian urban music Renaissance of the 1870s and early 1880s. A form of song more complex in structure than popular songs in the early 1800s.
Men yom ‘ereft el ḥob albi enkawa wallah enkawa Since I knew love, my heart burned Ya ḥelw goud bel orb weshfi elfou’ad marra O lovely one, bestow your closeness and cure my heart, if only once Yalli kawaak el ḥob esbor ‘ala wa’dak O you burnt by love, be patient with your plight Felbo’d walla el orb ollo ana ‘abdak Tell them (the beloved): ‘In distance and closeness, I am your slave’
5&6 Devr Gaddidi Ya Nafs Hazzek (دورجددييانفسحظك) Composer Unknown. This Muhayyer mode devr is an example of pre-Egyptian music Renaissance. A form of song popular in the early to mid 1800s. It's catchy yet simple melody allows for vast space to improvise.
Gadidi ya nafs ḥazzik, monyati elhaager te’ataff... O Self, renew your fortunes! S/he who I desire has shown sympathy... Wa bashir elons waafa... ...the harbinger of good times has kept their vow... W ḥabib el alb sharraf. And the heart’s beloved has, with their presence, graced us. Ah ya salam men remsh ‘einak waya elḥawageb ya salam Ya salam, the lashes of your eyes, with your brows, ya salam Bel ‘azab eḥna redeena, dalbe’aad makansh waageb I accepted the torment, the distance was needless
7&8 Mowashah Hagarni Habibi (موشحهجرنيحبيبي) Like all muwashahat pre 1850s, Writer and composer unknown and very little is known about the origins of this mowashahat. It is in Hijaz Mode and set to a popular and typically expansive muwashshah rhythm called 'Mohajjar' in 14/4.
Hagarni ḥabibi wala zanb li S/he left me, and I had committed no sin Nadeet ya tabeebi, bellahi re-ali I called (to the beloved): ‘O my healer, for the sake of God, soften’ Ghazali hagar w 3anni nafar My gazelle has departed and spurned me W khaleet le ‘eini alboka w alsahar You left my eyes to tears and sleeplessness
9&10 Tahmila Saba (تحميلهصبا) Tahmila is a playful instrumental form, popular in perhaps less affluent surroundings, cafes rather than palaces. A very popular form based around a collective playing of a basic melody with interludes of individual instrumental improvisations by various members of the ensemble.
11&12 Mowaal Ya Badr Timm El Gimeel (مواليابدرتمالجميل) The mawwal is a form popular until this very day. It is based on minimal instrumental accompaniment and no rhythmic accompaniment at all. It is an opportunity for the lead vocalist to illustrate his singing skills and improvisational prowess. The recorded example is set to Jeharkah mode. This mawwal’s lyrics’ beauty lies in the use of wordplay. Badry in each different sentence and grammatical formation, means my moon, early or I did not realise. The full moon is often used either as a metaphor for the beauty of the beloved's face or acting as a witness to the sleeplessness of the poet in love.
Ya badr timm elgemeel wetlaa’lena badry O full moon*, gift us this favour and appear early Yekfa malaameḥ gamaalak men gamal badry Your beauty’s virtues are like those of the Moon Amseet ya badr la ba’lam wala badry Dusk fell and I did not know or realise** Enkan ḥabibi yewafeeni la teeb wafraḥ If my love would be loyal, I would heal and be joyous W en ma wafaani la baader beldomo’ badry And if s/he would not, I would give my tears early
*the beloved **such was the mind absent
13&14 Mowashah Ya Hilalan (موشحياهلالاً) Like all Mowashahat pre 1850s, Writer and composer unknown and very little is known about the origins of this mowashah. It is in Neruz Mode (a derivative of Rast) and set to a popular and playful Muwashshah rhythm called "Nawakht" in 7/4. Again the moon is referenced but as a crescent representing the beloved.
Ya Hilalan ghaaba ‘anni waḥtagab O Crescent- s/he disappeared from me and was shrouded Wa hagarni la bizanbin wala sabab S/he deserted me, with no fault or reason Belhawa ma naabani ghayr elta3ab In love I gained nothing but weariness Wanqada elomr menni Life dissipated from me wala nelt elarrab yet I did not reach what I wish for
15 Saut Ma Naha Warqu (صوتماناحورْق) A song form very popular in the Arabian Gulf region where classical poetry is put to improvisational melody over very distinctive rhythms synonymous with the region. In this recording the performer elects a melancholy poem, puts it to Rast Mode and set to Saut Shami Rhythm (a form of 4/4). More on this saut to come...
Ma naa7a wargen wagharrad belghosoon ella ‘aleeh elmadaame’ hallati With every cry and coo of the dove in the branches, my tears flowed
FOLLOW US ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, SOUNDCLOUD. Whatever takes your fancy. Just don't forget the hashtag ;) #oxfordmaqam All Rights Reserved.